Separate test code from test cases in
unpacking feature, check it out !
Test execution order
Installing pytest-cases now has effects on the order of
pytest tests execution, even if you do not use its features. One positive side effect is that it fixed pytest#5054. But if you see less desirable ordering please report it.
Did you ever thought that most of your test functions were actually the same test code, but with different data inputs and expected results/exceptions ?
pytest and its great
@pytest.mark.parametrize decorator, so that you can separate your test cases from your test functions. For example with
pytest-cases you can now write your tests with the following pattern:
- on one hand, the usual
test_xxxx.pyfile containing your test functions
- on the other hand, a new
test_xxxx_cases.pycontaining your cases functions
> pip install pytest_cases
Usage - 'Data' cases¶
a- Some code to test¶
Let's consider the following
foo function under test:
def foo(a, b): return a + 1, b + 1
b- Case functions¶
First we create a
test_foo_cases.py file. This file will contain test cases generator functions, that we will call case functions for brevity:
def case_two_positive_ints(): """ Inputs are two positive integers """ return dict(a=1, b=2) def case_two_negative_ints(): """ Inputs are two negative integers """ return dict(a=-1, b=-2)
In these functions, you will typically either parse some test data files, or generate some simulated test data and expected results.
Case functions do not have any particular requirement, apart from their names starting with
case_. They can return anything that is considered useful to run the associated test.
Support for pytest marks
Pytest marks such as
@pytest.mark.skip can be used on case functions, the corresponding case will be handled according to the expected behaviour (failed if
@pytest.mark.fail, skipped under condition if
c- Test functions¶
Then, as usual we write our
pytest functions starting with
test_, in a
from pytest_cases import cases_data from example import foo # import the module containing the test cases import test_foo_cases @cases_data(module=test_foo_cases) def test_foo(case_data): """ Example unit test that is automatically parametrized with @cases_data """ # 1- Grab the test case data inputs = case_data.get() # 2- Use it foo(**inputs)
Note: as explained here, cases can also be located inside the test file.
As you can see above there are three things that are needed to parametrize a test function with associated case functions:
- decorate your test function with
@cases_data, indicating which module contains the cases functions
- add an input argument to your test function, named
case_datawith optional type hint
- use that input argument at the beginning of the test function, to retrieve the test data:
inputs = case_data.get()
Once you have done these three steps, executing
pytest will run your test function once for every case function:
>>> pytest ============================= test session starts ============================= (...) <your_project>/tests/test_foo.py::test_foo[case_two_positive_ints] PASSED [ 50%] <your_project>/tests/test_foo.py::test_foo[case_two_negative_ints] PASSED [ 100%] ========================== 2 passed in 0.24 seconds ==========================
d- Case fixtures¶
You might be concerned that case data is gathered or created during test execution.
Indeed creating or collecting case data is not part of the test per se. Besides, if you benchmark your tests durations (for example with pytest-harvest), you may want the test duration to be computed without acccounting for the data retrieval time - especially if you decide to add some caching mechanism as explained here.
It might therefore be more interesting for you to parametrize case fixtures instead of parametrizing your test function. Thanks to our new
@pytest_fixture_plus decorator, this works exactly the same way than for test functions:
from pytest_cases import pytest_fixture_plus, cases_data from example import foo # import the module containing the test cases import test_foo_cases @pytest_fixture_plus @cases_data(module=test_foo_cases) def inputs(case_data): """ Example fixture that is automatically parametrized with @cases_data """ # retrieve case data return case_data.get() def test_foo(inputs): # Use case data foo(**inputs)
In the above example, the
test_foo test does not spend time collecting or generating data. When it is executed, it receives the required data directly as
inputs. The test case creation instead happens when each
inputs fixture instance is created by
pytest - this is done in a separate pytest phase (named "setup"), and therefore is not counted in the test duration.
Note: you can still use
request in your fixture's signature if you wish to.
Usage - 'True' test cases¶
a- Case functions update¶
In the above example the cases were only containing inputs for the function to test. In real-world applications we often need more: we need both inputs and an expected outcome.
pytest_cases proposes to adopt a convention where the case functions returns a tuple of inputs/outputs/errors. A handy
CaseData PEP484 type hint can be used to denote that. But of course this is only a proposal, which is not mandatory as we saw above.
A case function can return anything
Even if in most examples in this documentation we chose to return a tuple (inputs/outputs/errors) (type hint
CaseData), you can decide to return anything: a single variable, a dictionary, a tuple of a different length, etc. Whatever you return will be available through
Here is how we can rewrite our case functions with an expected outcome:
def case_two_positive_ints() -> CaseData: """ Inputs are two positive integers """ ins = dict(a=1, b=2) outs = 2, 3 return ins, outs, None def case_two_negative_ints() -> CaseData: """ Inputs are two negative integers """ ins = dict(a=-1, b=-2) outs = 0, -1 return ins, outs, None
We propose that the "expected error" (
None above) may contain exception type, exception instances, or callables. If you follow this convention, you will be able to write your test more easily with the provided utility function
unfold_expected_err. See here for details.
b- Test body update¶
With our new case functions, a case will be made of three items. So
case_data.get() will return a tuple. Here is how we can update our test function body to retrieve it correctly, and check that the outcome is as expected:
@cases_data(module=test_foo_cases) def test_foo(case_data: CaseDataGetter): """ Example unit test that is automatically parametrized with @cases_data """ # 1- Grab the test case data: now a tuple ! i, expected_o, expected_e = case_data.get() # 2- Use it: we can now do some asserts ! if expected_e is None: # **** Nominal test **** outs = foo(**i) assert outs == expected_o else: # **** Error tests: see <Usage> page to fill this **** pass
See Usage for complete examples with custom case names, case generators, exceptions handling, and more.
pytest postprocesses the order of the collected items in order to optimize setup/teardown of session, module and class fixtures. This optimization algorithm happens at the
pytest_collection_modifyitems stage, and is still under improvement, as can be seen in pytest#3551, pytest#3393, #2846...
Besides other plugins such as pytest-reorder can modify the order as well.
This new commandline is a goodie to change the reordering:
--with-reorder normalis the default behaviour: it lets pytest and all the plugins execute their reordering in each of their
pytest_collection_modifyitemshooks, and simply does not interact
--with-reorder skipallows you to restore the original order that was active before
pytest_collection_modifyitemswas initially called, thus not taking into account any reordering done by pytest or by any of its plugins.
@pytest_fixture_plus is similar to
pytest.fixture but without its
ids arguments. Instead, it is able to pick the parametrization from
@pytest.mark.parametrize marks applied on fixtures. This makes it very intuitive for users to parametrize both their tests and fixtures. As a bonus, its
name argument works even in old versions of pytest (which is not the case for
Finally it now supports unpacking, see unpacking feature.
@pytest_fixture_plus deprecation if/when
The ability for pytest fixtures to support the
@pytest.mark.parametrize annotation is a feature that clearly belongs to
pytest scope, and has been requested already. It is therefore expected that
@pytest_fixture_plus will be deprecated in favor of
@pytest_fixture if/when the
pytest team decides to add the proposed feature. As always, deprecation will happen slowly across versions (at least two minor, or one major version update) so as for users to have the time to update their code bases.
In some cases fixtures return a tuple or a list of items. It is not easy to refer to a single of these items in a test or another fixture. With
unpack_fixture you can easily do it:
import pytest from pytest_cases import unpack_fixture, pytest_fixture_plus @pytest_fixture_plus @pytest.mark.parametrize("o", ['hello', 'world']) def c(o): return o, o a, b = unpack_fixture("a,b", c) def test_function(a, b): assert a == b
Note that you can also use the
unpack_into= argument of
@pytest_fixture_plus to do the same thing:
import pytest from pytest_cases import pytest_fixture_plus @pytest_fixture_plus(unpack_into="a,b") @pytest.mark.parametrize("o", ['hello', 'world']) def c(o): return o, o def test_function(a, b): assert a == b
And it is also available in
import pytest from pytest_cases import pytest_fixture_plus, fixture_union @pytest_fixture_plus @pytest.mark.parametrize("o", ['hello', 'world']) def c(o): return o, o @pytest_fixture_plus @pytest.mark.parametrize("o", ['yeepee', 'yay']) def d(o): return o, o fixture_union("c_or_d", [c, d], unpack_into="a, b") def test_function(a, b): assert a == b
If you wish to share some parameters across several fixtures and tests, it might be convenient to have a fixture representing this parameter. This is relatively easy for single parameters, but a bit harder for parameter tuples.
The two utilities functions
param_fixture (for a single parameter name) and
param_fixtures (for a tuple of parameter names) handle the difficulty for you:
import pytest from pytest_cases import param_fixtures, param_fixture # create a single parameter fixture my_parameter = param_fixture("my_parameter", [1, 2, 3, 4]) @pytest.fixture def fixture_uses_param(my_parameter): ... def test_uses_param(my_parameter, fixture_uses_param): ... # ----- # create a 2-tuple parameter fixture arg1, arg2 = param_fixtures("arg1, arg2", [(1, 2), (3, 4)]) @pytest.fixture def fixture_uses_param2(arg2): ... def test_uses_param2(arg1, arg2, fixture_uses_param2): ...
pytest 4, it is not possible to create a "union" fixture, i.e. a parametrized fixture that will first take all the possible values of fixture A, then all possible values of fixture B, etc.
fixture_union is an implementation of this proposal.
from pytest_cases import pytest_fixture_plus, fixture_union @pytest_fixture_plus def first(): return 'hello' @pytest_fixture_plus(params=['a', 'b']) def second(request): return request.param # c will first take all the values of 'first', then all of 'second' c = fixture_union('c', [first, second]) def test_basic_union(c): print(c)
<...>::test_basic_union[c_is_first] hello PASSED <...>::test_basic_union[c_is_second-a] a PASSED <...>::test_basic_union[c_is_second-b] b PASSED
As you can see the ids of union fixtures are slightly different from standard ids, so that you can easily understand what is going on. You can change this feature with
ìdstyle, see API documentation for details.
This feature has been tested in very complex cases (several union fixtures, fixtures that are not selected by a given union but that is requested by the test function, etc.). But if you find some strange behaviour don't hesitate to report it in the issues page !
IMPORTANT if you do not use
@pytest_fixture_plus but only
@pytest.fixture, then you will see that your fixtures are called even when they are not used, with a parameter
NOT_USED. This symbol is automatically ignored if you use
@pytest_fixture_plus, otherwise you have to handle it.
fixture unions vs. cases
If you're familiar with
pytest-cases already, you might note
@cases_data is not so different than a fixture union: we do a union of all case functions. If one day union fixtures are directly supported by
pytest, we will probably refactor this lib to align all the concepts.
Finally fixture unions now supports unpacking, see unpacking feature.
@pytest_parametrize_plus is a replacement for
@pytest.mark.parametrize that allows you to include references to fixtures in the parameter values. Simply use
fixture_ref(<fixture>) in the parameter values, where
<fixture> can be the fixture name or fixture function.
import pytest from pytest_cases import pytest_parametrize_plus, pytest_fixture_plus, fixture_ref @pytest.fixture def world_str(): return 'world' @pytest_fixture_plus @pytest_parametrize_plus('who', [fixture_ref(world_str), 'you']) def greetings(who): return 'hello ' + who @pytest_parametrize_plus('main_msg', ['nothing', fixture_ref(world_str), fixture_ref(greetings)]) @pytest.mark.parametrize('ending', ['?', '!']) def test_prints(main_msg, ending): print(main_msg + ending)
yields the following
> pytest -s -v collected 9 items test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_0-nothing-?] nothing? PASSED test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_0-nothing-!] nothing! PASSED test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_world_str-?] world? PASSED test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_world_str-!] world! PASSED test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_greetings-greetings_who_is_world_str-?] hello world? PASSED test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_greetings-greetings_who_is_world_str-!] hello world! PASSED test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_greetings-greetings_who_is_1-you-?] hello you? PASSED test_prints[test_prints_main_msg_is_greetings-greetings_who_is_1-you-!] hello you! PASSED
As you can see, the ids are a bit more explicit than usual. As opposed to
fixture_union, the style of these ids is not configurable for now but feel free to propose alternatives in the issues page.
Note: for this to be performed, the parameters are replaced with a union fixture. Therefore the relative priority order of these parameters with other standard
pytest.mark.parametrize parameters that you would place on the same function, will get impacted. You may solve this by replacing your mark parameters with
param_fixtures (see above.)
Main features / benefits¶
Separation of concerns: test code on one hand, test cases data on the other hand. This is particularly relevant for data science projects where a lot of test datasets are used on the same block of test code.
Everything in the test or in the fixture, not outside. A side-effect of
@pytest.mark.parametrizeis that users tend to create or parse their datasets outside of the test function.
pytest_casessuggests a model where the potentially time and memory consuming step of case data generation/retrieval is performed inside the test node or the required fixture, thus keeping every test case run more independent. It is also easy to put debug breakpoints on specific test cases.
Easier iterable-based test case generation. If you wish to generate several test cases using the same function,
@cases_generatormakes it very intuitive to do so. See here for details.
User-friendly features: easily customize your test cases with friendly names, reuse the same cases for different test functions by tagging/filtering, and more... See Usage for details.
Do you like this library ? You might also like my other python libraries
Want to contribute ?¶
Details on the github page: https://github.com/smarie/python-pytest-cases